Osteoporosis ICD-10-CM Coding
When reporting osteoporosis ICD-10-CM codes, you’ll need to choose from two separate code subcategories.
Osteoporosis, or porous bone, is a systemic condition affecting all bones of the musculoskeletal system. Osteoporosis occurs when too little bone is made, or too much bone is lost. Human bones are constantly being remodeled. This process occurs more rapidly in childhood and young adulthood. Over time, the rate of breaking down old bone surpasses the rate of new bone growth. This loss in bone mass or density may cause the bone to become porous, brittle, weak, and more easily broken.
Bone Density Measurement (BDM) testing is used to determine the amount of bone loss present. A patient’s current BDM is compared to the BDM at age 30. The difference is then calculated to determine if the patient’s T-score. Depending upon the T-score, a patient may have osteopenia (low bone mass) or osteoporosis (very low bone mass).
-1.0 Normal bone mass
-1.0 to -2.5 Osteopenia
-2.5 or lower Osteoporosis
The anatomic site is not a component of osteoporosis ICD-10-CM codes under category M81 Osteoporosis without current pathological fracture. The site codes under category M80 Osteoporosis with current pathological fracture, identify the site of the fracture, not the osteoporosis.
ICD-10-CM further classifies osteoporosis due to the underlying cause as age related, or other. Osteoporosis ICD-10-CM subcategories M80.0- Age-related osteoporosis with a current pathological fracture and M81.0- Age-related osteoporosis without a current fracture, also known as primary osteoporosis, include:
Involutional osteoporosis is the loss of bone due to age. Involutional osteoporosis is also known as primary osteoporosis
Postmenopausal osteoporosis is due to the lack of estrogen leading to bone resorption at a faster rate than the production of new bone. Postmenopausal osteoporosis is also known as Type I osteoporosis.
Senile osteoporosis involves thinning of both the cortical (hard outer bone) and trabecular (spongy interior bone) bone typically occurs after age 70. Senile osteoporosis is also known as Type II osteoporosis.
Osteoporosis ICD-10-CM subcategory M80.8 Other osteoporosis with current pathological fracture and M81.8 Other osteoporosis without current fracture, also known as secondary osteoporosis, include:
Certain medications and drugs may cause bone loss or retard bone growth. This is referred to as drug-induced osteoporosis. These drugs include antiseizure medications, chemotherapy drugs, steroids, Proton pump inhibitors, and thyroid hormones.
Osteoporosis in which no underlying cause can be determined, such as osteoporosis in a seemingly healthy young adult, is called idiopathic osteoporosis.
Osteoporosis of disuse occurs due to immobilization or lack of use of a bone.
Postoophorectomy osteoporosis is due to the underlying cause, which would be menopause, loss of estrogen, and higher rates of bone absorption.
Postsurgical malabsorption osteoporosis is a form of osteoporosis caused by malabsorption of calcium, zinc, and other nutrients that occur after procedure done on the gastrointestinal tract, including bariatric surgery.
Post-traumatic osteoporosis is osteoporosis due to the decreased blood supply, which may be caused by nerve damage due to an injury or disuse of the body part in relation to pain caused by an injury.