The mitral valve of the heart controls the passage of blood from the left atrium to the left ventricle. When it fails to perform this duty due to disease, then a replacement surgery might be the only option if a repair is not feasible. Stenosis, or narrowing, of the mitral valve leads to failure of the valve to open fully. Stenosis may be caused by rheumatic heart disease or calcification of the leaflets. Another condition that may require a valve replacement is regurgitation in which the valve fails to prevent the reverse flow of blood to the atrium and lungs. Mitral regurgitation could be the result of a genetic disorder or due to a disease such as cardiomyopathy and ischemic heart disease.
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